What Wikileaks Says About Somaliland

At the outset, I need to give credit to the Somaliland247 blog for bringing this matter to my attention, but it is something that I wish to discuss as well concerning the relevance of the recent wikileaks posting to my interest in the international recognition of the nationhood of Somaliland.

As it happens, Mr. Richard Mills, a political attachè at the US Embassy in London, on February 6, 2009 reported that Her Majesty’s Government in England failed to consider Somaliland’s independence as a serious enough priority, giving two very valid reasons to support Somaliland independence:  it would help the ability of that fledgling nation to build its infrastructure after the civil wars of the 1980’s, and it would also help aid an indigenous democracy against the pressure of militant Islam in the Horn of Africa.  Witness, for example, the spread of the Sharia Law Courts over much of Somalia.

Indeed, it is a bit puzzling why Great Britain, who ought to be aware of the separate Somaliland identity as a result of having granted it a separate independence in 1960 (a matter about which I would like to know a lot more, though it would probably require a trip to visit the archives of the British Colonial office).  Indeed, this particular document may be one of the ones to come out in this latest wikileaks set that has a positive effect, showing that whatever might be said about the direction of American diplomacy, that the US State Department has humane and far-thinking employees who look out for the interests of the United States in supporting home-grown efforts at the establishment of legitimate and democratic states, even in very challenging regions of the world.  I hope Mr. Mills gets some kind of recognition for his honesty and sagacity, most of all the reward of having one’s ideas taken seriously and implemented.

Perhaps, for the good people of Somaliland, the fact that a blunt-speaking American political attachè in London has your back is a sign that at least some people in the rest of the world, even those who are not Somalilanders, show a deep concern and interest in the well being of a nation that has made an excellent start at democratic politics and the rule of law in a very inhospitable region to do so.  To let such noble and good work go unrewarded would be a grave shame.   Let us, as best as we can, seek to prevent that from happening by providing a voice to a so-far-forgotten nation.

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37 Responses to What Wikileaks Says About Somaliland

  1. Somaliland would be well advised to not host the Wikileaks website on servers domiciled on its territory. Nor should they admit Mr. Assange into their country. To do so would likely stall any potential for diplomatic recognition from Washington.

    • I highly agree–though, judging from Mr. Assange’s behavior, he would seem to get into legal trouble in Somaliland. Somaliland does not take molestation or sexual offenses by foreigners lightly, and would probably extradite him straight to Sweden, where he is already wanted for sexual offenses.

  2. Pingback: Edge Induced Cohesion Top 10 Posts of 2010 | Edge Induced Cohesion

  3. hersi says:

    Somaliland; The buffer zone against the war in terror and piracy

    By prof Abdikarim Ahmed Hersi
    Member of the steering comity of Economic, Social, and Cultural Council of the African Union: ECOSOCC-AU (The Advisory organ to the African leaders and the AU commissions)

    The Republic of Somaliland has endured and surmounted great challenges since reclaiming its independence from the failed Union with Somalia in 1991. Embracing democracy and implementing it through elections were the last tests that it has successfully achieved. The subsequent peaceful power hand over between the outgoing President and the newly elected President cemented the notion that genuine democracy has deeply rooted in a country located in a region over shadowed by religious extremism, piracy and conflicts.
    Having gone through that ordeal Somalilanders were expecting to hear what they longed for so long (recognition) from the international communities, spear headed by the democratic Godfathers of the western hemisphere. However, unfortunately it seems that their message is falling into deaf ears as the western nations are still avoiding considering the situation of Somaliland and only promising to give financial and moral support to this young blossoming democratic state of Somaliland.
    Somaliland is located in a strategic place in the horn and the red sea and is an indispensible partner the fight against terrorism and piracy. On the other hand, it has proved to maintain stability and progress without much support from the region and the rest of the world. Nevertheless, its people have tolerated enough the international denial and it seems that recognition is like a waiting for a boat, which never comes. The question worth to be answered is how long will this neglected budding democratic state will hold its shield and defend democratic ideology from the evil forces that hampered the rest of Somalia that they share an open border with.
    Let alone the well known Islamic jihadist in the region, the minor Piracy off the Somali Coast has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War and many international organizations, including the International Maritime Organization and the World Food Programme, have expressed concern over the rise in acts of piracy. Piracy has contributed to an increase in shipping costs and impeded the delivery of food aid shipments in the African Continent and skyrocketed commerce costs all over the world. Ninety percent of the World Food Program shipments and international trade arrive by sea and pass here in Babal Mandeb and they are under threat every day, and ships into this area now require a military escort.
    The situation is so gloomy right now in the red sea even though no piracy activity is reported or exists in the Somaliland Coast. However, how will it be if the people lose hope and Somaliland cease existence? On top of that, one should know that Somaliland has the longest red sea coastal aria comparing the rest of Somali speaking states in the region, and has long-range chain of Golis Mountains that can be a hub for evil doers (piracy and jihadists). If the international community remains indifferent longer and Somaliland is swallowed by the chaos nearby which some scholars consider the hell on earth.
    Therefore, it is the interest of the international community to consider the danger that might came if Somaliland fails to exist.
    I think the existence of Somaliland, as an independent state is the benefit for the continent in particular and the world in general, and the best tool that international community can give to Somaliland against the war of anarchy (piracy, terrorism) is an immediate unconditional recognition as an independent state. Otherwise, there will be a widespread chaos in the red sea and the region. Fire storm of religious terrorism and piracy will not only destroy the continent of Africa but also boost the international jihadist war and economic crises which has already damaged the peaceful co-existence of the two civilizations (Islam and Christian).
    I think the exemplary democratic values Somaliland demonstrated during the Presidential elections and the responsible behavior its people are showing in managing their country peacefully having one objective in perspective which is developing their country and seeking for recognition merits the special attention and careful look of international community at Somaliland. When one look around, one can understand that the world we’ll living in is troubled and infested with social and political unrest and Somaliland a small nation from the Horn of Africa elevated and lived up to the true principles of Democracy and by this sole act surely deserves to be congratulated worldwide and shown as an example and eventually granted its recognition with the view of maintaining or even nourishing the hope of those proud and courageous men who fought for liberty and justice so as they could live in peace and democracy. It is the international community obligation to support that small nation endeavoring to exist in the region but also whose men have the ability to play an important role in the international scene for the benefit of the whole world.

  4. Hirsi says:

    Somaliland in one clan’s dream on subjegating minorities who live in the so called Somaliland. More recently hundreds of non- Isaaq tribes were violently killed and displaced by the SNM army in Kalshaale, Maygaagle and Laas- Caanoood. Somaliland consists of of five major tribes namely, Isaaq, Gudabiirsi, Dhulbahante, Warsangeli, and Gabooye. The ruling isaaq is the only clan that wants to be recognised as a nation while the rest are unionists. Giving independence to Somaliland will amount to opening a pandora box. Please visits other somali websites inorder to comprehend the attrocities the Somaliland army are committing on minorities with the help of western tax payers money.

    • Hirsi,

      I approve your comments even though I do not approve your message. For one, you say that Somaliland oppresses “minorities” within its areas and that it bases its borders on defunct colonial claims. I remind you that the African Union bases its support of nations on colonial borders in order to avoid the bloodbath of ethnic hatreds erupting in dozens of wars to reunite people separated by borders (like the Tuareg of the Sahara, or the Hausa, or the Somalis for that matter). So, as the colonial borders are what the international community recognizes, that is what you have to deal with, whether you like it or not. Second, the Isaak clans of Somaliland are not a different ethnicity than the rest of Somalia (or the Somalis in Djibouti or Ethiopia or Kenya for that matter). However, the different culture of Somaliland compared to the rest of Somalia appears at this point to justify a separate nationhood. By your hostility against Somaliland you too accept that they are a different people to you. It was the independence of South Sudan that really opens up the Pandora’s box, as there are really only a very small number of nations who currently deserve independence based on colonial boundaries in Africa–Somaliland and Western Sahara (and perhaps Zanzibar). Granting those three cases would not be the Pandora’s box. South Sudan, on the other hand, never had a separate colonial identity, and its soon-coming independence opens up the specter of recognized separatist regimes all over Africa. The Pandora’s box is already open. It’s too late to close it–we can only deal with its repercussions. Under those grounds, Somaliland gets its independence under any just comparison with South Sudan.

  5. Hirsi says:

    Clan Wars, British Tax Money And Somalilandās Aggressions

    March 7, 2011
    Clan Wars, British Tax Money And Somaliland’s Aggressions
    On Monday, Feb. 7, 2011, soldiers loyal to the separatist administration of ‘Somaliland’ fought fierce clashes against local clans over control of territory. Of course, explaining the tragic events of that Monday to a reader brainwashed by the ‘Somaliland’ separatist ideology is difficult, but one simply has to analyze the changing political rhetoric in Hargeisa, capital of the self-declared yet unrecognized ‘Republic of Somaliland.’
    Over the past few days, Somaliland’s internal politics has been rocked by the events of Feb. 7th. Reliable reports put casualties suffered on the Somaliland army side between between 52 and 65 soldiers killed, while local clan fighters lost an estimated 22 men during the day-long battles, when heavy weapons inlcuding tanks were used.

    It is regrettable that clan fighting continues in this day and age in any part of Somalia. More worrisome, Somaliland’s administration, which considers itself the West’s ‘democracy darling’ of Somalia, is directly waging clan wars and benefiting from British tax-payers’ money to fund violent aggressions, uprooting of communities and land expansion at the expense of civilians.

    SSC SOMALIA
    Some estimates put British aid to Somaliland at 60% of all British aid to Somalia. The separatist rulers in Hargeisa claim Sool and Sanaag regions, along with Buhodle district, based on defunct colonial-era boundaries. Notwithstanding this claim, local clans and the international community watched with silence as Somaliland troops militarily seized Las Anod, capital of Sool region, in Oct. 2007.

    Such a violent military strategy was tried in Buhodle district. Monday’s fighting is deeply rooted in Somaliland’s aggression to advance its violent land expansionism in order to uproot local clans and import clans loyal to the separatist agenda. Insiders know that Somaliland President Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo ordered Somaliland troops to attack villages after his sub-clan, the Habar Jelo of the Isaaq clan, failed in their effort to uproot the local Dhulbahante clan from Kalshale village.

    Since coming to power in July 2010, President Silanyo’s administration has been seized by hardliners from the SNM rebel group of the 1980s. Unlike his predecessors, President Silanyo did the unusual step of allowing a subordinate, Mr. Muse Bihi, to become chairman of the ruling Kulmiye party. Every Somaliland president before Mr. Silanyo held the dual posts of Somaliland President and Party Chief, at the same time.

    Mr. Silanyo’s concessions to Mr. Bihi, himself another SNM veteran, has two key reasons: 1) Mr. Bihi’s Habar Awal sub-clan, of the Isaaq clan that formed the SNM in the early 1980s, is the dominant clan in Hargeisa; and 2) Mr. Bihi and junior SNM veterans know quite well that Mr. Silanyo is a one-term president, given his old age.

    The SNM veterans, who were intentionally kept out of Somaliland government for nearly 20 years, have returned with a vengeance. They are seeking to reunite the Isaaq clan and strengthen the separatist agenda by diverting intra-Isaaq disputes to the ‘us vs. them’ dynamic. In other words, the SNM veterans are seeking Isaaq clan unity by posing an equation for the Isaaq population that Isaaq political destiny is under threat of Dhulbahante clan, whic is a false pretense based on the SNM’s historical hostilities and aggressions against neighboring clans.

    Mr. Silanyo’s predecessor, Mr. Dahir Riyale and his former administration, have been repeatedly accused of arming and funding Al Shabaab terrorist elements in Sanaag region. This strategy was fuelled by Somaliland’s jealousy of Puntland, which is a stable region, with a functioning government, yet supports Somali national unity under a federal structure. In short, Puntland’s historic stability became a threat to Somaliland’s lies that the rest of Somalia is war-torn and lawless. But supporting terrorists, as similarly to raising snakes, is never a successful plan. Today, Puntland has militarily defeated Al Shabaab terrorists and flushed them out of the Sanaag mountains, while Al Shabaab remnants have fled to safety in Somaliland’s major towns, posing serious security risks for Somaliland inherited by the Silanyo administration.

    Peace, security and stability is for the interest of all communities in Somalia. Violent clan aggressions, blatant lies of separatism, support for terror groups, and other crimes will not get Somaliland any closer to international recognition. What readers should understand is that Somaliland has always played a villian role in Somali politics. It is Puntland’s continued stability, and some success, that has brought Somaliland’s crimes out for public scrutiny.

    Even today, when Puntland remains quiet as regards the battles of Monday Feb. 7th, Somaliland officials continue to blame Puntland while it is Somaliland tanks that have targeted villages and uprooted communities. This fact is out for everyone to see.

    It would be prudent for Somaliland’s leadership to stop lying to their own population. After 20 years, there is no international recognition and an old man is the president, who has become a victim to SNM veterans motivated by clan hostilities. Creating new clan wars is not the path to seeking clan unity to bolster a long-failed secessionist agenda. It is heart-breaking to witness young men and women, travel by road for hours from Hargeisa to Garowe, capital of Puntland, seeking a Somali federal passport and the opportunity to be smuggled abroad. It is Somaliland’s youth who are losing massively in this hopeless campaign of separatism, as they have very limited educational and employment opportunities commonly experienced by all youth across Somalia.

    Finally, the British Government should carefully review its Somalia aid policy, because if British aid is used to fund clan wars, the reprecussions could be great for all parties concerned, as Britian and its record of human rights is well-respected in the community of nations.

    Please visit: http://www.boocame.com

  6. Hirsi says:

    I completly disagree with your assesment on this topic. Sudan

  7. Hirsi says:

    Sorry, What I meant was that I completly disagree with your assesment. Southern Sudan was given independence due to the following reasons:

    1. Religion
    2. Oil
    3. Influtial former US Ambassadors, such as current US Ambassodor in Nairobi Kenya
    4. Geo-political reasons e.t.c

    I am from what was formerly known as British Somaliland , and my clan will never approve nor accept the fragmentation of Somalia.

  8. Southern Sudan has influential backers (which I have written about) as well as oil and the angle of humanitarian disaster. I refer you to my articles on Southern Sudan for a more complete answer. Nonetheless, Somaliland has a very strong case for nationhood on the grounds of resources (coastal oil that was falsely assumed to be part of Puntland that actually was Somaliland), the abuses of the Barre regime (including attempted “genocide” of the Somaliland people and the bombing of civilians similar to what wacky Gaddafi is doing now in Libya), as well as the separate colonial history of Somaliland compared to Somalia. You have a right to disapprove, but Somaliland’s case for nationhood is a legitimate one by the standards of the Montevideo Convention (which gives four standards of nationhood that Somaliland meets) as well as the guidelines of the African Union themselves. If the African Union is consistent with its principles, Somaliland gets its independence.

  9. Hirsi says:

    My people or should I say my clansmen lost thousands of soldiers in fighting the Brits. My people were the first african to be bombed by RAF. Their rebellion ended in 1921. My people did not die in vain they were defending our dignity and independence.

    Furthermore, the Brits singed peace accords with varius clans that inhibit in Northern Somalia, again my clansmen did not sign any agreements with the Brits. Here is the prove from colonial archives which I am intending to use in my PhD thesis.

    M.H.Buraleh

    British Treaty with Somaliland Tribes
    The British Government have signed protection treaties
    with six Somaliland tribes: Gadabursi, Eesa,
    Warsangeli, Habr Gerhajis, Habr Toljaala and
    Habr-Awal. All the Articles in the Agreements and the
    Supplementary Agreements signed with the Somaliland
    tribes are similar except the Warsangali one.
    The only treaty singed by Garad[or traditional leader]
    representing the all tribe is the Warsangali one. All
    the other treaties are singed by elders that may
    represent their areas or their different sub-clans.

    –The Warsangali treaty doesn’t contain the preamble
    that precedes every treaty which puts the independence
    and maintenance of order in the British Government
    hands. The statement goes as “the maintenance of our
    independence , the preservation of order …… ” . The
    Warsangali treaty is added an extra article[LOOK
    ARTICLE VI OF THE WARSANGALI TREATY] that none of the
    other treaties has which indicates that the
    Warsnagali will assist the British officers and follow
    their advice for ” .. duties as my be assigned to
    them, and further act upon their advice in matters
    relating to the administration of justice, the
    development of the resources of the country, the
    interests of commerce, or in any other matter in
    relation to peace, order, and good government, and the
    general progress of civilization. ”
    –No tribal area is referred as “COUNTRY” except the
    Warsangali territory.
    ARTICLES I, II and III are removed from the Warsangali
    Treaty. ARTICLE III in the Warsnagali Treaty is
    similar to ARTICLE II in HABR GERHAJIS and Habr
    Toljaala Treaty but it is removed the statement ” All
    vessels under the British flag shall have free
    permission to trade at all ports and places within …

    The conclusion of every agreement, except the
    WARSANGALI TREATY, indicates that the treaty will be
    abided by the elders currently signing and ” their
    heirs and successors ”

    HERE ARE THE ARTICLES THAT ALL THE OTHER TRIBES HAVE
    EXCEPT THE WARSANGALI TREATY
    ____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _
    We, the undersigned Elders of the Gadabursi tribe, are
    desirous of entering into an Agreement with the
    British Government for the maintenance of our
    independence, the preservation of order, and other
    good and sufficient reasons.
    Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
    ART. I. The Gababursi tribe do hereby declare that
    they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell,
    mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to
    the British Government, any portion of the territory
    presently inhabited by them, or being under their
    control.
    ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
    free permission to trade at all ports and places
    within the territories of the Gadabursi tribe
    ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
    the territories of the Gadabursi tribe shall enjoy
    perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitled
    to travel all over the said limits under the
    safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe
    ………… .
    In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
    honourable bond, Jama Roblay, ……..and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter,
    Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the former for
    themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter
    on behalf of the British Government, do each and all,
    in the presence of witnesses, affix their signatures,
    marks, and seals, at Zaila, on the 11th day of
    December, 1884, corresponding with the 25th Safar.
    F. M. Hunter
    (the marks of Elders named.)
    Agreement with the Gadabursi, ZAILA, Dec. 11, 1884 –
    ____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _
    We, the undersigned Elders of the Eesa tribe, are
    desirous of entering into an Agreement with the
    British Government for the maintenance of our
    independence, the preservation of order, and other
    good and sufficient reasons.
    Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
    ART. I. The Eesa tribe do hereby declare that they are
    pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or
    otherwise give for occupation, save to the British
    Government, any portion of the territory presently
    inhabited by them, or being under their control.
    ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
    free permission to trade at all ports and places
    within the territories of the Eesa tribe
    ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
    the territories of the Eesa tribe shall enjoy perfect
    safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel
    all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the
    Elders of the tribe
    …….
    In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
    honourable bond, Ali Geridone, ………and Major Frederick Mercer
    Hunter, Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the
    former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and
    the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
    each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix
    their signatures, marks, and seals, at Zaila, on the
    31st day of December, 1884, corresponding with the
    13th Rabu-al-Awal, 1302
    F. M. Hunter
    Agreement with the Eesa Somal, ZAILA, Dec. 31, 1884 –

    ____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _
    We, the undersigned Elders of the Habr Toljaala tribe,
    are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the
    British Government for the maintenance of our
    independence, the preservation of order, and other
    good and sufficient reasons.
    Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
    ART. I. The Habr Toljaala tribe declare that they are
    pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or
    otherwise give for occupation, save to the British
    Government, any portion of the territory presently
    inhabited by them, or being under their control.

    ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
    free permission to trade at all ports and places
    within the territories of the Habr Toljaala, and the
    tribe is bound to render assistance to any vessel,
    whether British or belonging to any other nation, that
    may be wrecked on the above-mentioned shores, and to
    protect the crew, the passengers, and cargo of such
    vessels, giving speedy intimation to the Resident at
    Aden of the circumstances, for which act of friendship
    and good-will a suitable reward will be given by the
    British Government.
    ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
    the territories of the Habr Toljaala shall enjoy
    perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitled
    to travel all over the said limits under the
    safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe

    In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
    honourable bond, Dirir Shaikh Don, ….[INSERT THE
    NAMES OF THE ELDERS HERE]…..;and Major Frederick
    Mercer Hunter, Assistant Political Resident, the
    former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and
    the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
    each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix
    their signatures, marks, and seals, at Aden, on the
    26th day of December, 1884, corresponding with the 9th
    of Rabu-al-Awal, 1302
    F. M. Hunter
    (the marks of Elders named.)
    Agreement with Habr Toljaala, Aden, December 26,1884
    ____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _
    We, the undersigned Elders of the Habr Gerhajis tribe,
    are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the
    British Government for the maintenance of our
    independence, the preservation of order, and other
    good and sufficient reasons.
    Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
    ART. I. The Habr Gerhajis tribe do hereby declare that
    they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell,
    mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to
    the British Government, any portion of the territory
    presently inhabited by them, or being under their
    control.
    ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
    free permission to trade at all ports and places
    within the territories of the Habr Gerhajis, and the
    tribe is bound to render assistance to any vessel,
    whether British or belonging to any other nation, that
    may be wrecked on the above-mentioned shores, and to
    protect the crew, the passengers, and cargo of such
    vessels, giving speedy intimation to the Resident at
    Aden of the circumstances, for which act of friendship
    and good-will a suitable reward will be given by the
    British Government.
    ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
    the territories of the Habra Gerhajis tribe shall
    enjoy perfect safety and protection, and shall be
    entitled to travel all over the said limits under the
    safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe
    In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
    honourable bond, Ahmed Ali, ……..and Major Frederick Mercer
    Hunter, Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the
    former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and
    the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
    each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix
    their signatures, marks, and seals, at Aden, on the
    13th day of December, 1885, corresponding with the
    28th of Rabi-al-Awal, 1302
    F. M. Hunter
    (Signatures of Elders)
    Agreement with Habr Gerhajis, Aden, January 13,1885
    ____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _
    WHEREAS the garrisons of His Highness the Khedive are
    about to be withdrawn from Berbera and Bulhar, and the
    Somali Coast generally, we, the undersigned Elders of
    the Habr-Awal tribe, are desirous of entering into an
    Agreement with the British Government for the
    maintenance of our independence, the preservation of
    order, and other good and sufficient reasons.
    Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
    ART. I. The Habr-Awal tribe do hereby declare that
    they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell,
    mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to
    the British Government, any portion of the territory
    presently inhabited by them, or being under their
    control.
    ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
    free permission to trade at the ports of Berbera,
    Bulhar, and other places in the territories of the
    Habr-Awal tribe
    ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
    the territories of the Habr-Awal shall enjoy perfect
    safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel
    all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the
    Elders of the tribe
    ……
    In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
    honourable bond, Abdellah Liban, ……..and Major Frederick Mercer
    Hunter, the officiating Political Resident of Aden,
    the former for themselves, their heirs and successors,
    and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
    each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix
    their signatures, marks, and seals, at Berbera, on the
    21st day Ramdhan, 1301, corresponding with the 14th
    July, 1884
    F. M. Hunter, Major,
    Officiating Political Resident, Aden.

    Agreement with Habr-Awal, Berbera, July 14, 1884
    ____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _

    The conclusion of every agreement, except the
    WARSANGALI TREATY, indicates that the treaty will be
    abided by the elders currently signing and ” their
    heirs and successors “
    ____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _

    TREATIES, &c., between the Warsangalis (British
    Protection; Slave Trade; Wrecks: &c.). – January 27,
    1886
    THE British Government and the Elders of the
    Warsangali tribe who have signed this Agreement being
    desirous of maintaining and strengthening the
    relations of peace and friendship existing between
    them;
    The British Government have named and appointed
    Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, C.S.I., Political Agent
    and Consul for the Somali Coast, to conclude a Treaty
    for this purpose.
    The said Major F. M. Hunter, C.S.I., Political
    Agent and Consul for the Somali Coast, and the said
    Elders of the Warsangali, have agreed upon and
    concluded the following articles:-
    ART. I. The British government, in compliance with the
    wish of the undersigned Elders of the Warsangali,
    undertakes to extend to them and to the territories
    under their authorities and jurisdiction the gracious
    favour and protection of Her Majesty the
    Queen-Empress.
    II. The said Elders of the Warsangali agree and
    promise to refrain from entering into any
    correspondence, Agreement, or Treaty with any foreign
    nation or Power, except with the knowledge and
    sanction of Her Majesty’s Government.
    III. The Warsnagali are bound to render assistance to
    any vessel, whether British or belonging to any other
    nation, that may be wrecked on the shores under their
    jurisdiction and control , and to protect the crew,
    passengers, and cargo of such vessels, giving speedy
    intimation to the Resident at Aden of the
    circumstances; for which act of friendship and
    good-will a suitable reward will be given by the
    British Government.
    IV. The Traffic in slaves throughout the territories
    of the Warsangali shall cease for ever, and the
    Commander of any of Her Majesty’s vessels, or any
    other British officer duly authorized, shall have the
    power of requiring the surrender of any slave, and of
    supporting the demand by force of arms by land and
    sea.
    V. The British Government shall have the power to
    appoint an Agent or Agents to reside in the
    territories of the Warsangali, and every such Agent
    shall be treated with respect and consideration, and
    be entitled to have for this protection such guard as
    the British Government deem sufficient.
    VI. The Warsangali hereby engage to assist all British
    officers in the execution of such duties as may be
    assigned to them, and further to act upon their advice
    in matters relating to the administration of justice,
    the development of the resources of the country, the
    interests of commerce, or in any other matter in
    relation to peace , order, and good government, and
    the general progress of civilization.
    VII. This Treaty to come into operation from the 27th
    day of January, 1886, on which date it was signed at
    Bunder Gori by the Undermentioned.
    F. M. Hunter
    Witness:
    J. H. Raintier, Commander, R. N.
    Muhammad Mahmud Ali, Gerad of all the Warsangali.
    Jama Mahmud, Gerad
    Muhammad Ibrahim, ditto.
    Omar Ahmed, ditto.
    Mahmud Abdullah, ditto.
    Yussuf Mahmud, ditto.
    Of the Ayal Fatih sub-tribe-
    Nur Abdullah.
    Isa Adan.
    Muhammad Ali Shirwa.
    Abdy Nur
    Of the Ogais Lebay sub-tribe–
    Muhammad Abdy Nalaya.
    Mahmud Sagullay.
    Abdullah Sagullay.
    Muhammad Abdullah

    • Your people were the followers of the Mad Mullah? I’m not surprised that your hostility towards the British would lead to a hostility against those of Somaliland, given the fact that Somaliland’s ethnogenesisis appears to have resulted from the difference between British and Italian (and French and Ethiopian) imperialism superimposed on existing clan boundaries. Tough luck.

  10. Hirsi says:

    The Brits called Seyid Mohammed Abdulle Hassan ‘ Mad Mullah’ , simply because he refused to pay taxes to the Brits who had travelled thousands of miles to enslave and colonize his people. Secondly, I dont hate Brits my granddad was a British soldier the so called Kings African Rifles who had fought against Nazis in WWII). My people were against enslavement at that time and they are still against enslavement by one clan in Somaliland as we speak.

    • That is true–though what he did was certainly crazy to an imperialist nation like Great Britain. Why do you think that Somaliland’s government–a government with the rule of law, and democracy advanced enough to allow three times now for the peaceful transition of power between political parties–would enslave you or your people? Would you rather prefer to be part of a nation that is a total asabiya black hole (Somalia) than be part of a functioning nation with the potential for improvement? Is not hope better than the certainty of continued disaster and failure? Would you not rather be a minority citizen in a nation with potential than be part of a majority in a nation that is a total basketcase, as one of the world’s worst-functioning and least cohesive nations (along with Afghanistan, Iraq, the Ivory Coast, and maybe Belgium)?

  11. yasin says:

    Timothy, Somalis are clan driven, Somaliland government has two faces an external face that tries to portray itself as a beecon of democracy and internal one that is purely clan driven. Let me give you an example, there are three oppostion parties, they are all led by Isaaq and Gudabiirsi. Moreover, there are loads of human rights violations on minorities in Somaliland. There have been countless cases of extrajudicial killings, the most watched sattelite tv channel Universal TV was banned from Somaliland three days ago after it had exposed human rights violation on my people. We would like to live in peace and harmony with each other, but Somalis are more loyal to clannish ideology than true democracy, whereby people’s human rights, dignity are proctected by the law. To be honest with you Timothy, the Isaaq’s are currently committing atrocities, while they are at the same time claiming to have been victimized by Siyad Barre. They are free to form their own nation, but they should leave us to live freely in our own towns and villages.

    By the way I have a funny vedio for you: http://www.youtube.com/v/EMPcnK_sA1g&hl=en_US&feature=player_embedded&version=3“><param

    • Who is Timothy? My name is Nathan. I don’t think anyone would object to a plebiscite in “disputed areas” where other clans beside the Isaaq reside where people would get to choose democratically whether they wanted their region to belong to Puntland or Somaliland. That said, Somaliland still awaits its internationally monitored plebiscite to achieve recognized independence after 20 years of de facto independence. What more does the nation have to do to get its right to be free and independent recognized by the outside world?

  12. yasin says:

    Sorry Nathan, what about the clip I posted? What is your opinion on the clip?

    • I don’t think it’s very amusing–but that is mainly because I don’t find Hitler amusing in general (for ethno-religious reasons), and I have seen several spoofs of that particular scene for various other political purposes and think the concept is a bit unoriginal.

  13. yasin says:

    I dont find him amusing either my grandad fought against nazis and thank God Hitler failed. The current Somaliland leader in behaving like him internally, if you try to unmusk that you will find the truth. I have no intention to demonize him, but trust me what I am saying is nothing but the truth, the whole truth.

    • My own belief is to trust but verify–I would certainly like to get an understanding “on the ground” in the area myself if possible, and I have no qualms with finding our more information such as I can from a variety of sources.

  14. yasin says:

    The only way to verify my claim is to gather as much information as possible from different sources as possible. You cant get first hand information from areas inhabited by Darood clans such as Las-Anod, Buhoodle, Dhahar, Badhan. All international help regarding health care, education and employment are concentrated in Hargeysa, Burco, and Borame which are inhabited by Isaq and Gudabiirsi clans respectively. If the current regime treated us like equal citizens with full rights, there wouldnt have been any problems. But since we are Somalis, who know how the clan card is being played, we have to defend our rights and survival.

    • How much is real and how much is paranoia and exaggeration? If different clans of the same ethnicity simply are unable to get along, then what’s the point of pretending to be one nation anyway? Why not let each clan have its own “nation” and then determine the boundaries of one’s herding range? Then Somaliland at least would be for the Isaaq clan and its allies. A greater Somali state is untenable if the greater Somali people cannot act as one. There appears only enough asabiya in the Somali people for clan-based states anyway. Why not let the borders reflect that unfortunate reality?

  15. yasin says:

    Extreme poverty, which is environmentally induced, foreign interests , high levels of illetracy rates coupled colonial legacy and lack of national identity is what we are facing. So far nothing seems to have replaced clan identity, I dont think if I will be lucky enough to see a Somalia whereby noone is charged by his/her clan affiliation. For that simple reason my people want to see each each clan have its own “nation” and then determine the boundaries of one’s herding range? That could perhaps the solution, hovever the Isaaq have invaded us and are already occupying our land through the use of old colonial maps.

    • Why not call in the AU (they’re already trying to guard Mogadishu) and then arrange for the partition of Somalia along clan lines? That would be a fair way to deal with the mess, and maybe they could all ally with each other once they had their own space to rule as they saw fit. There’s no sense in forcing a nation together if no one wants to be under the rule of some other clan.

  16. yasin says:

    That process is ongoing there are now variuos regional administrations based on clan affiliation, for example Somaliland is Isaq territority, Puntland for Darods, Galmudug for Hawiye, Bayland Jubaland, Banaadirland, Ximin iyo xeed, Waax iyo Waadi and few more to come. Each region has its own president, so in future there will be a need for the formation of a body that takes care of the Centre Bank, Immigration and Defence. That is similar to what Somalis had prior to the arrival of colonial powers. This is pure pastroral democracy, although some short sighted westerners may claim most somalis now live in urban areas rather than rural areas.

    • Yes, but since the Isaaq do not wish to be a part of a greater Somalia, why not concede to their desire to be independent? The weak Transitional National Government does not have authority over its own capital, much less the entire nation. Why not abandon the farce, except the reality of the partitioning of Somalia, and deal with it accordingly? It sounds like you’re one of those boosters for the TNG within Somalia, despite its complete and total impotence.

  17. yasin says:

    If the Isaaq do not wish to be part of Somalia, why should we part of Somalia. And we live in Northern Somalia and we represent more than the half of the population there, why should we be part of Somaliland then? It goes both ways. What about our wishes.

    • Why should you be a part of Somalia? What’s the point in belonging to an imaginary nation with no functioning government? That’s my point exactly. Why not call for a plebiscite for Somalis to vote on what government they wish to be a part of. Do people in Somaliland want to be independent–let them choose. The same for Puntland and Mogadishu and all the other parts. Do they want to be ruled by their clan or be part of a larger government? Let them decide.

  18. yasin says:

    We are not getting anywhere, all nations are imagined. This is similar to Anderson’s book( imagined communities 1987) you should read that book. Furthermore, you should read Charles Tilly’s book state making and war making. Liberal democracy does not work in Somalia, if you are interested in assisting opressed people to gain independence you should direct your energy to Palestine and Tibet.

    • Well, Somaliland has a functioning liberal democracy, so you’re wrong about that. The Palestinians don’t have a functioning one, though I’d support the development of one there if they could stop hating the Israelis enough to actually engage in nation-building. I believe Tibet deserves one too, but Taiwan needs to be recognized internationally before we can start on Tibet. Just like we should focus on Somaliland before we start on Palestine. One works with the best materials at hand.

  19. Kiki says:

    As i stated on the website where this wikileaks cable was reported, and you have quited in your introduction, “Somaliland247 blog” , for a historain you have made a beginners mistake. You have quoted someone who did NOT say what you think. If you read the cable correctly and with attention you will see that it is not political counsellor Richard Mills at the US embassy in London who suggests recognition of Somaliland should be considered, but HE REPORTS that a “RUSI Africa specialist” stated so in his/her analysis of the situation!!! No harm intended, i personally favour Somaliland’s independence, but as a historian myself, i believe you should read a bit more carefully these cables.

    • Indeed, my comment was not that the American government supports Somaliland independence, but that they should, and that some elements of America’s diplomatic corps believe that Somaliland should be recognized as well and are on record (on wikileaks) for saying so. Perhaps you misunderstood me.

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